Week VIII May 30 – June 3
1. Review the images of Gilded Age New York in the pages of Illustrated History of New York - and categorize them according whether they illustrate “Sunshine” or ”Shadow” during the Gilded Age. If you’re not sure what the image represents explain why.
2. Choose one person, place, thing or event from the identifications below and do some preliminary research on the internet - site your source(s) – and write a brief analysis of the item’s historic significance for understanding the history of New York City during the Gilded Age.
Week XI November 22-24, 2010
Sunshine and Shadow, New York – 1860 – 1898
Discussion: The end of the Civil War brought with it reunion between the North and South, and reunion brought with it new opportunities for New York to grow into the national metropolis - and one of world’s largest and most powerful cities by the end of the nineteenth century. New York was the national metropolis by the end of the Civil War with a population of between 800,000 to one million people. This number would have been unimaginable just a couple of generations earlier. Imagine, then, that by the year 1900 the city would more than triple in size reaching a population of fully 3,000,000 people. By the end of World War I, just twenty years later, New York would become the world’s largest city and truly the capital of the world. In this chapter we continue to observe this dizzying 19th ascent and the challenges brought about by ever bigger bigness. Commerce, immigration, population growth and geographical expansion, continue to be major themes of the story. But now the problems associated with rampant capitalism and poverty produced a wider and wider gap between the privileged and the poor. Add to this the massive “new Immigration” between the years 1886 and 1924 and one begins to understand the meaning of the metaphor that is the title of the chapter. New York was, indeed, two worlds, one “Sunshine,” the other “Shadow,” one a world of the rich and privileged, the other a world of unimaginable hardship, deprivation, horrible working and living conditions and despair. It was also a time of extraordinary achievement, aspiration, invention and productivity. This troubled, varied and often fabulous New York is our subject.
Reunion and reconstruction: New York as the national metropolis
The Gilded Age: Boom and Bust, Bulls and Bears
Democratic aspirations: Central Park
The “New Immigration” – 1886 – 1924 (13.5 million people enter through New York)
The new urban political machine”- the case of William M. “Boss” Tweed and Tammany Hall
Upward: the age of skyscrapers
Greater New York: The Consolidation of the City in 1898
1. New Immigration, Tenements, Muckrakers, Ellis Island, Emma Lazarus
3. Elevated Railroad , Electric lights, first central station – 1882, Brooklyn Bridge - 1883, Actualities, 1896, Consolidation of New York – 1898
14. Henry George, J.P. Morgan, Jacob Riis, Andrew Carnegie, Thomas Edison, Electric Motor – 1893, John Augustus, Washington, Emily Roebling, William M. Tweed, Al Smith
Week VII May 23-26, 2011
Questions on Chords of Caste:
1. Give three examples of racism in New York City during the decades before the Civil War, taking into account the social, economic, and political conditions in which the African American population found itself.
2. What is the issue that the author discusses in Chords of Caste?
Week VI – May 16-20
Order and Disorder – New York, 1825-60
This week we study of the transformative events of the period 1825-1860.
Assignment: Due Friday, May 20, 2011 -
Reading: Burns, Burns The Illustrated History of New York, pp. 68-137
17. Cornelius Vanderbilt 18. Alexander Hamilton 19. Robert Fulton and the Clermont, 1807, 20. Dewitt Clinton, 21. Commissioners’ Grid Plan 1811 22. Black Ball
22. Washington Irving, Knickerbockers ,Nativism
23. Emancipation of Slaves in New York, 1827, All Saints Free Church, Freedom’s Journal
24. Walt Whitman and Leaves of Grass, 1855 ,
28. Stewart’s department Store, 1846.
Reading – complete the excerpt from the book “Five Points”
May 17, 2011
“Order and Disorder” essays
1. Transportation has been a continuing factor in the evolution of New York since the Half Moon sailed up what would be named the Hudson River in 1609. Discuss five different episodes in the history of transportation that transformed the history of this city during the first half of the 19th century.
2. New York City is, and has always been, a “city of immigrants,” starting with the diverse population that arrived during the Dutch period, right up until the present day, when almost 40% of the City’s population is foreign born. Describe this pattern in the early 19th century. What immigrant groups arrived here? What was their impact? Were there tensions and conflicts between those who had called New York home for generations and those newly arrived? What were these tensions? How did they affect the politics and the culture of the City in the years prior to the Civil War? Have immigrant groups been welcomed with open arms to New York? Give examples. How have various groups struggled and risen through the “social geography” of the city?
3. The period from 1825 to 1860 was a time of truly unprecedented growth, change and challenge to every New Yorker:
1. The population grew from around 200,000 to nearly one million people.
2. Increasing diversity made this growth even more disorienting.
3. Economic and technological changes created upheavals in the social and cultural lives of every New Yorker, in the ways they lived and worked, in the way they communicated, and in the ways they related to each other. Crime, poverty, racial and ethnic conflict disease, mand much more plagued a city seemingly unequipped to handle its sudden transition into the modern world, a city
Your author refers to the sum total and impact of these changes as producing a period of “disorder” – not a very optimistic assessment. Give examples of some of the economic, social and cultural challenges and problems that descended upon the little city that became a metropolis in just a few decades. If you lived in New York during this time, what do you think the impact of these dramatic change and growth would have been on your life?
4. Along with the “disorder” created by the rapid changes in New York City during this period, as it developed into a new kind of city – a metropolis, which by the Civil War was already bursting with nearly one million people. Historians have also focused on the attempts at improving life, making it more modern and efficient, attempting to establish some kind of pattern for the future and stabilize daily life. Give examples of these efforts to impose “order” on the obvious disorder of the teaming city.
“Discussion of Major themes
The period 1825 to 1860 was a time of truly unprecedented growth, change and challenges to every New Yorker. Imagine that you maintain an organized bedroom, in an organized home, in an unchanging neighborhood. You rely on this organization and predictability in your life. Then, while you’re overnight at a friend’s, a windows are left open, there’s a storm, and gusts of wind and rain damage and disorganize everything you rely on for normal life. When you return, nothing is the way you left it. You would be disoriented, to say the least. You would face disorder in every in every part of your life. You would begin, with the help of others, to try to restore some order in your life. Something like this is what happened to New York as it was transformed by the “storm” of history from a small, intimate town into a metropolis in a couple of generations. Not only did the population increase from 90,000 at the beginning of the century to 750,000 by the time the Civil war began. Different kinds of people from those who had settled and lived here for two hundred years. These “Knickerbockers” had dominated social, civic and economic life of the city. Now, as Germans and Irish immigrants poured into New York, their privileged position was threatened. We will observe the City’s unprecedented growth (both in population and geographic expansion) and transformation (in terms of industrialzation, transportation, commerce, class and race, demography, media and communications, policing, public health, and much more. These developments ended the intimacy of the old “walking city” and ushered in new relationships characteristic of the modern metropolis? Would you have liked to live in “gaslight New York”?
Themes of the period:
I New York City expands more rapidly than any city in history. From the small town of a few thousand people in the 1780 it becomes to the metropolis of 1865, with a population of three quarters of a million.
II The impact of the “Transportation Revolution” on New York City
1. Robert Fulton’s development of the steamboat, 1807
2. The development in 1811 of New York City’s grid plan, New York’s familiar grid of streets and avenues, one of the most recognizable aspects.
3. The Age of Sail reaches its peak even as new forms of transportation develop. Americans build the sleekest, fastest sailing vessels in the world that voyage to every continent and open up world trade centered on New York. The famed Yankee Clippers were the fastest ships on the world. In 1817 ,scheduled packet service – the first being The Black Ball Line in 1817, replaces individual contracting of merchants with ship captains, making the system of booking passage predictable and rational.
4. The Erie Canal, completed in 1825, seals New York’s position, predicted since Hudson’s voyage in 1609, as the preeminent hub of Atlantic – and eventually, global – trade.
5. The railroad era, beginning in the late 1820′s, put an end to the construction of canals. The career of Cornelius Vanderbilt, a pioneer of transportation on both water and by rail, is symbolic of the passing of an age and the beginning of a new one. Travel by sea was for thousands of years the only alternative to walking or being drawn by animals on land. Now the “iron horse,” powered by the steam locomotive ushered in a new technology that shrunk time and space. Vanderbilt became the nation’s premier shipping magnate, and then in the 1840s, switched to rail, becoming the most powerful railroad owner in the world.
II The first great wave of immigration into New York City during the 1840s, primarily German and Irish.
III A Sense of History: Reacting to rapid population growth and immigration of different ethnicities, a new sense of history develops in New York City during the period prior to the Civil War. The role of Washington Irving, who was New York’s first internationally known author, is very important in this development. His book, The Knickerbockers History of New York gave rise to the term “Knickerbockers” referring to native born New Yorkers of Dutch or English descent during a period of increasing anxiety about the influx of foreigners into New York.
IV Geographical expansion of New York. John Jacob Astor buys up real estate all over the City and sells it to contractors as New York expands northward. One such block was Charlton Street, and one such building was our new school building at 42 Charlton Street!!
V The Industrial Revolution in New York City: the rise of the factory system and the decline of traditional economic and social relationships. By the 1840s New York is the nation’s largest industrial center. The east river on both the Manhattan and Brooklyn sides was the industrial hub of the city, with smokestacks rising, hundreds of employees working in manufacturing, and as much as 15% of the nation’s wealth centered in the area from Greenpoint to Brooklyn Heights and 23rd street to the Battery.
VI The New Politics and the Rise of Tammany Hall
VII Class and Race in antebellum New York
1. “Slavery by another name” – the case of the St. Augustine’s Church slave galleries.
2. The rise of the workingman’s movement in New York City
3. Class markers in consumption and recreation: the case of Central Park
Week V – May 8-14
This week we will be reading about and discussing the emergence of New York City briefly as the nation’s political capital, and then, permanently, as the nation’s financial and commercial capital. Be prepared for each day’s class having read the following pages and answered the accompanying questions.
Reading – Burns, pp. 21-27 Slavery and racism in colonial New York
1. Describe the nature of slavery as it existed in New York City during the English colonial period. Describe the reactions of enslaved African Americans to their plight. How did the Revolutionary War affect the City’s slave population?
Reading, Burns, pp. 28-37 The Capital of a New Nation;pp. 51-55 America’s City
1. When the War for Independence began in 1776, why were New York City and the Hudson River Valley central to England’s strategy for defeating the rebellion? Did the strategy work? What was the political result of the American victory at Saratoga? .
2.. What was the magnitude of the force the British assembled in New York Harbor in the summer of 1776? Describe the strategy of the British as they moved to secure New York City in August of 1776.What were the major encounters during the Battle of Long Island – also known as the the Battle of Brooklyn?
3. What was the condition of New York City in the years immediately following the conclusion of the American War for Independence?
4. In the years following the victory over England, New York evolved from the political capital of the nation to its economic one. How would New York City history been different if it had remained the capital of the United States?
5. Describe the development of New York City’s economy during the years after the War for Independence concluded in 1783. How did advances in transportation propel New York City to the forefront of the nation during the first decades of the nation’s existence.
Reading, Burns, pp. 56-67 America’s City
What was the significance and the impact of the construction of the grid system of streets and avenues in 1811?
Is it fair to describe the construction of the Erie Canal as in some way the fulfillment of the dream of Henry Hudson?
Week IV – V April 25-29; May 2-5
We reach the end of the Adriaen Van der Donck saga. In doing so we understand the question we began with: Why did the Dutch colony fail; or as we often phrased it, Why don’t we speak Dutch?
Readings: In order to answer the following questions on Chapters 11-14, read my summaries and check the references to specific pages or passages in the book itself , cited in the summaries, for further clarification.Your answers are due Monday, May 8th.
Chapter 11 – “An American in Europe” – When did Van der Donck return to the Netherlands? Why? What did he find there – in terms of the political atmosphere? What argument did he make to the States General? Who were his political enemies? What was the decision of the Dutch government with respect to the colony’s government and management? What orders does it send to Director General Stuyvesant? What does Van der Donck accomplish with respect to the government of New Amsterdam. (P. 230)
Chapter 12 – “A Dangerous Man” – Van der Donck remains in the Netherlands, but then international events intervene and the government starts to back down from its support of Van der Donck’s position. The summary states: Then the roof falls in. A drastic shift in the tides of international geo-politics intervenes and snatches AVD’s victory from him.(pp. 245-46) Explain!
Chapter 13 – “Booming” – Although AVD has lost his battle against Stuyvesant and the Company, he nevertheless did win a huge victory. As a result of his boldness New Amsterdam was now an incorporated, self governing city – its residents now citizens. Explain. What was the Flushing Remonstrance, and why was it important in the history of religious liberty in this country?
Chapter 14 “New York” – Why don’t we speak Dutch” What happened to Adriaen Van Der Donck in 1655? What happened to New Netherland in 1664?
Weeks III – IV; April 11-15; 17-21
“The Lawman” – Chapter 5 , pp. 93 - 109
“The Cause” - Chapter 7, pp. 129 – 139 (To be discussed Monday and Tuesday)
“The One-legged Man,” Chapter 8, pp. 146-155
“The General and the Princess,” Chapter 9, pp. 167-179 (To be discussed Thursday and Friday)
Read the following chapters in Russell Shorto, Island at the Center of the World and my summaries of the chapters found in the Pages Section of the Blog entitled Gotham Resources. Use the passages from the book that I reference in the summaries to help you answer the following questions.
Chapter 5 The Lawman:
1. From the portrait of Leiden, the city where Adriaen van der Donck studied when he entered university in 1638, what characteristics of the Dutch republic can we infer? In what areas of European culture, society and learning did the Dutch play a leading role during the 17th century?
2. Why did Van der Donck come to New Netherland? Who was Killian Van Rensselaer and what was Van der Donck’s relationship with him? How did Van der Donck’s training suit him for his role in the colony?
3. Describe the spirit of enterprise, trade, upward mobility that struck one upon entering “the Bay,” (or what we call today New York harbor)? What kind of political and intellectual atmosphere did he absorb there?
4. What political values did he learn there? What was significant about the fact that so many intellectuals and religious dissenters sought refuge there from persecution in other European countries?
Readings: Shorto Chapter 7 “The Cause,” pp. 129-145 (to be discussed Thursday)
Chapter 7 The Cause
- Why does Shorto mean when he writres that Van der Donck cracked the stereotype of
- What was happening in New Amsterdam when Adriaen Van der Donck returned there from Renssalaerwyck in 1645? (139-143).
- What role did Van der Donck play in the rising opposition to Kieft? How do we know that?
Chapter 8 The One Legged Man; and The General and the Princess
1. Describe the character of Peter Stuyvesant.
2. What was Stuyvesant’s first reactions to what he found in New Amsterdam?
3. What kind of ruler was he? What were his first actions? What new policies did he institute?
4. What political crisis did Stuyvesant immediately face concerning what to do with former Director Kieft?
5. Who were Jochem Kuyter and Cornelius Melyn and Cornelius van Tienhoven?
6. What was Van der Donck’s relationship with the new Director? What did he want from Stuyvesant? Why did Stuyvesant refuse to give in to the colonists’ demands?
Study Questions for quiz on Friday, April 29
Describe the geographical extent of New Netherland.
Where was New Amsterdam? What happened in 1653 that changed the course of it’s history?
What was the name of the Lenape village that is the site of today’s Greenwich Village?
When was the Dutch West India Company chartered? Describe the company’s business.
Why is what we call New York Harbor and the Hudson River really an estuary
Why were 17th century explorers obsessed with the Northwest Passage?
What are today’s names for the Fresh, North and South Rivers, respectively?
Who were the patroons?
Why was Rosh Hashanah in 1654 so important?
When did the English capture New Netherland?
In what way was Municipal Charter of New Amsterdam granted by the States General in 1653 vindication for Adriaen Van der Donck?
Week I – II March 14 – 17; April 4-8
Introduction: Glacier, Natives and Dutchmen
We begin by considering the following topics: New York’s natural history - terrain and its natural life; The native inhabitants of New York called the Lenape; The geopolitical situation in Europe at the end of the 16th and early 17th centuries, which led to the rise of The United Provinces of the Netherlands and the Age of Exploration in the New World; and the early settlement of the island of Manhattan.
We will start with the impact of the last Ice Age. The glacier began to recede some 15,000 years ago leaving behind an “archipelago” of island – of today’s five boroughs only the Bronx is part of the mainland United States – some 70 miles of shoreline and hundred of islands.
To understand the force and impact of the glacier – called the Wisconsin Glacier - imagine a huge steam shovel, digging huge trenches or troughs as the land froze and the ice sheet advanced down from the arctic circle. Except the steam shovel is actually the southern-most edge of the ice, and as it proceeds, it mixes everything in its path in with the ice.It dug huge troughs like the Hudson Valley and shallower flatlands all over what is now New York City. There was so much sea water frozen into he glacier, by the way, that the actual shoreline of the Atlantic Ocean off New York, New England and much of New Jersey was up to 150 miles east of where it is now.
This all started 75,000 years ago. Then about 15,000 years ago, the glacier started to melt. It receded northat different speeds, depending on how cold it was for a given stretch of hundreds of years. And as it melted over a particular spot in the geography, it deposited the mud and rock it had dug and mixed with ice on the way down . So if the glacier took a long time to melt over a particular spot, it deposited more mud – eventually dry land – over that spot. Today those locations form higher points in the terrain of the City. Often their names remind of of this fact, for example Bay Ridge, Brooklyn, or Murray Hill Manhattan. Other spots indicate the glacier was melting fast when it receded over that spot. Hence, Flatbush, Brooklyn, or the Harlem Valley in Manhattan at around 100-110 streets on the west side. At first, with all this water being deposited, most of Manhattan was flooded, leaving the island, especially the lower half, a perpetual swamp or actually underwater. (This is what could happen with increased global warming today.) Another reason is that the melted ice water had nowhere to drain in to ocean. Why? Because the channel now spanned by the Verazzano Bridge was a barrier reef, like a cork in the bottle of water formed by New York Bay. Eventually that cork popped, and the result about 10,000 years ago was the geography we recognize today.
At this point about 8,000 years ago, the native inhabitants that Henry Hudson would later encounter, entered the scene. These natives were the Lenape Indians, part of the great Algonquian peoples that stretched across the northeast and even north-central United States. Another name for them is The Delaware Indians. Europeans first made contact in the early 17thcentury with the arrival of Henry Hudson, an English navigator sailing for the Dutch West India Company. Hudson’s voyage was part of a “Great Age of Exploration” that included all the great European powers facing the Atlantic Ocean. (Classical Civilization - Greek and Roman civilization – was basically a Mediterranean culture.) Other transformative forces providing the context of the Dutch exploration and settlement of North America included the Protestant Reformation, the Commercial Revolution, the Scientific Revolution, and the first stirrings of the rise of democratic thought and values, one important manifestation of which was the establishment of a republican form of government in The Netherlands, which for all intents and purposes gained it’s independence in 1579, although the formal recognition of the fact of it’s independence didn’t come until 1648. A formal truce between the years 1609 and 1620 gave the now powerful rebellious province of Spain to enter the race for colonies in North America. This, of course, was the year Henry Hudson sailed the Half Moon under the Dutch Flag and joined the race to find the fabled “northwest passage.”
Powerful Atlantic powers were scrambling to find the northwest passage because it was supposedly a water route through the North American continent to the Pacific Ocean, thus providing renewed access to the Orient. The search was made necessary by grand historical developments that began almost a thousand years earlier – the great battle between Christianity and Islam, which culminated in 1554 in the capture of Constantinople , thus interrupting the overland trading route to the Orient which had been traveled by Europeans since at least the time of Marco Polo (13th century) and spurred the search for new routes by sea.
The first Atlantic nation to do so was Portugal, which first circumnavigated Africa, sailed the Indian Ocean, colonized to the subcontinent (India) and continued on to Cathay (China) and the South Asia Sea. This led to the voyages of Columbus, the first to dare the uncharted waters of the Atlantic itself, sailing west to find the east, and famously succeeding in 1492. Soon, all the major western and northern European nation states participated: Spain, England, Scotland Portugal, France, Sweden and others. A cold – and often hot – war ensued: a great centuries-long rivalry involving colonization across the globe, submission of native groups who objected, organized privateering (piracy) and often outright armed conflict. These ambitious and powerful states motivated by rivalries for colonies and resources spawned a new financial and commercial class (the bourgeoisie) and then tapped their wealth by chartering joint stock trading companies and establishing colonies. The English dominated the east coast of North America – Jamestown Virginia, 1607, and New England – Plymouth 1620, and Massachusetts Bay, 1629. The Spanish dominated South America, the French, Canada and the interior of North America, and all of them took a part of the Caribbean Sea. Even Sweden established a colony in North America, on the Delaware River, which the Dutch squashed in 1655.
But it was the upstart United Provinces of the Netherlands that with Hudson’s voyage grabbed, perhaps the most valuable piece of the international colonial puzzle: the section of the eastern coast of what is now the United States of America. It included what is now New York, New Jersey and part of Connecticut. This colony would be named New Netherland by the Dutch West India Company, the trading Company the Dutch established in 1621 to run things. In 1609, it signed up an English navigator named Henry Hudson to search for the Northwest Passage. After two failed attempts, he tried a third route, and on September 12, 1609, sailed through the Verrazano Narrows and entered the Upper Bay of New York harbor, inaugurating the Dutch colony in the New World. It would last until 1664 when the British captured it.
- How was the geography of New York City formed by the Wisconsin glacier? How long did this process take?
- Who were the native inhabitants of the area when Europeans made contact during the early 16th century?
- Describe the rise of the Dutch nation – The United Provinces of the Netherlands – during the late 16th and early 17th centuries. In what areas did this new nation become one of the leaders of Europe? What accounts for this so-called “Golden Age of the Dutch?” Name some of the individuals who we associate with this period.
- When did the Dutch rule New Netherland?
- Was the colony simply a trading post, a purely business proposition? Or was it a colony, with a government, laws and settlers? Why is this question important?
- Name the company chartered by the Dutch government in 1621 to manager the colony. What was the title given to the executive director of the company in North America? Who would you say were the most important men to fill this position during the Dutch period?
- Who was Adriaen Van der Donck? What was his relationship with three older men who were prominent in the history of New Netherland: Killiaen Van Renssalaer, Willem Kieft and Peter Stuyvesant?
- What were Van der Donck’s goals for the colony? Why did this put him in direct conflict with Peter Stuyvesant. Where did Van der Donck make his case during the period 1650-1653? What happened in the States General – the government of the United Provinces of the Netherlands
Map of Low countries:Reading, Burns, Illustrated History of New York, pp.1-21; Shorto, The Island at the Center of the World, pp 13-36; pp., 49-66; O’Han, “The First New Yorkers.” (go to pages, Gotham Articles, Article #1), “The Dutch Buy Manhattan,” pp. 42-79.
1. If geography is destiny, explain why New York City was destined to become one of the most economically powerful cities on earth. How did the Wisconsin Glacier create the geography and topography of New York City and its environs beginning 15,000 years ago?
2. Who was Henry Hudson? Why did he sail for the Dutch? What kind of man was he? What happened to him? What was the name of his ship? Describe the adventures he had on his voyages to what became New York?
3. The Dutch were the most powerful nation in 17th century Europe. What was the source of their economic power? What advantage s did they bring to the “cold war” (and often hot wars) of the 16th and 17th centuries? Why did they seek a colony on the Atlantic coast of North America?What made the late 16th and 17th centuries the Dutch Golden Age? pp. 16-17; search for the Northwest Passage
4. Who were the native inhabitants of New Netherland? How did their culture compare to that of the Europeans who arrived in the early 17th century? What was the impact of globalization on the native peoples they encountered?What were core characteristics of the culture and society of the Lenape? How did this culture adapt to the introduction of European culture during the Contact Period? “The Dutch Buy Manhattan,” pp. 48-49
5. What was the main economic activity of the Dutch settlers? What was the relationship of settlers to the company? Ultimately, was New Amsterdam in particular, and New Netherland in general, a colony or a company, a civil community or a trading post? Why is this important?
6. How did the Dutch settlers and the natives get along? Who was Willem Kieft and what fierce conflict broke out during the 1840′s?
Director Generals of New Netherland
Cornelis Jacobszoon May 1624-1625
Willem Verhulst 1625-1626
Peter Minuit 1626-1632
Sebastiaen Jansen Krol 1632-1633
Wouter van Twiller 1633-1638
Willem Kieft 1638-1638
Petrus Stuyvesant 1647-1664
David Petersen De Vries
Adriaen Van Der Donck
On the basis of the reading be able to define and discuss the following Key Terms. Have this sheet available at all times during class discussions, when we will amplify these terms’ meaning and relevance for the history of the Dutch period – 1609-1624.
Lenape, Lenapehoking, Sapokanikan, Manahatta, The Collect Pond
Muscovey Company, Henry Hudson, Giovanni de Verrazano, Dutch West India Company chartered
Estuary, North West Passage, Fresh, North and South Rivers
New Netherland, New Amsterdam, Bowling Green
Peter Minuit, Patroons, Willem Kieft, David Petersen De Vries, Adriaen Van der Donck, Peter Stuyvesant
Slave trade ,“Half Freedom,” First Rosh Hashanah, The Flushing Remonstrance
English Conquest of New Netherland